Breast cancer in most cases starts in the inner part of the milk ducts or lobules that is responsible for storing the milk. Breast cancer spreads from this location to other parts of the body.
The chief cause is as a result of DNA damage or genetic mutations. These two things can be associated with either of the following exposure to estrogen, genetic defects from the family and also inherited cancerous cells.
A healthy immune system is expected to attack any abnormal DNA. When a person has cancer, it is however unable to get rid of this abnormal DNA. This leads to the uncontrollable multiplication of breast cells. Whenever this occurs, a tumor develops and this uses up the nutrients and energy that is supposed to go to the normal cells.
There are different ways and methods of staging cancer. The one popularly known is the stages 0-4. The size of a tumor or how much it spreads to other parts of the body.
STAGE 0: This is also called dutal carcinoma. As the name implies, it means the cancer cells haven’t spread to the surrounding tissue. It is still within the ducts.
STAGE 1: Signifies the presence of small group of cancer cells in lymph nodes or it measures up to 2cm across.
STAGE 2: The presence of the cancer cells has spread considerably into nearby nodes or it is 2-5cm across.
STAGE 3: Here the tumor is 5cm and has spread to several lymph nodes.
STAGE 4: The cancer has spread to other organs of the body like the liver, kidney, brain, lung and even bones.